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英语句子结构剖析

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1、Some of these causes are completely reasonable results of social needs. Others are reasonable consequences of particular advances in science being to some extent self-accelerating.

结构分析:句子主干Some of these causes are reasonable results…, Others are consequences of advances…。主语是some of these causes,实际的主语就是some,不过谓语是单数还是复数则取决于of后面的成分是单数还是复数。being to some extent self-accelerating是现在分词短语做定语,意为“属于”。

译文:在这些原因中,有些完全是自然而然地来自社会需求,另一些则是由于科学在一定程度上自我加速而产生的,某些特定发展的必然结果。

2、This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail.

结构分析:句子主干是This trend began during…, when…引导时间状语从句, 第一个that引导同位语从句,表明conclusion的内容。第二个that引导的是修饰demands的定语从句。译文:这种趋势始于第二次世界大战期间,当时一些国家的政府得出结论:政府向科研机构提出的具体要求,通常是无法详尽预见的。

3、This seems mostly effectively done by supporting a certain amount of research not related to immediate goals but of possible consequence in the future.

结构分析:句子主干是This seems…done by supporting a certain amount of research not…but…,not…but句型,意为“不是……而是……”译文:给某些与当前目标无关,但将来可能产生影响的科研提供支持,看来通常能有效地解决这一问题。

4、However, the world is so made that elegant systems are in principle unable to deal with some of the world’s more fascination and delightful aspects.

结构分析:句子主干是However, the world is so made that…systems are…unable to deal with some of the…aspects。so made指“如此构成”,so和后面的that构成so…that结构,意为“如此…以至于…”。译文:然而,世界就是这样。一般而言,完美的体系无法解决世界上某些更加引人入胜的课题。

5、New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought must arise in the future as they hxdye in the past, giving rise to new standards of elegance.

结构分析:句子主干是New forms…must arise…as they hxdye in the past。主语是new forms和new subjects,后跟介词短语as well as new subjects for thought,谓语是must arise。as在这里引导状语从句as they hxdye in the past,hxdye后省略了arisen,其内容与本句主语一致。giving rise to…是一个现在分词短语做状语。

译文:同过去一样,将来必然会出现新的思维方式和新的思维对象,给完美以新的标准。

6、For Lloyd Nickson, a 54 years old Darwin resident suffering from lung cancer, the NT Rights of Terminally III law means he can get on with living without the haunting fear of his suffering: a terrifying death from his breathing condition.

结构分析:句子主干是the NT Rights…means he can get on with living without…。For Lloyd Nickson, 是状语,“a 54 years old…cancer”为Lolyd Nicks的同位语。此句的核心结构为Rights means…,he can get on with living without…是一个宾语从句。

译文:对于现年54岁居住在达尔文的肺癌患者尼克逊来说,这个法案意味着他可以平静地生活下去,而无须终日担心将要到来的折磨:因呼吸困难而在煎熬中死去。

7、Someone trxdyeling alone, if hungry, injured, or ill, often had nowhere to turn except to the nearest cabin or settlement.

结构分析:句子主干Someone had nowhere to turn to。trxdyeling是现在分词,是修饰someone的定语。if引导的从句中均省略了“主语+be动词”的结构,这样显得句子简洁。

译文:独自旅行时,如果没有了食物,受了伤或者生了病,通常只能向最近的小屋或者村落求救。

8、We live a society in which the medicinal and social use of substances (drugs) is pervasive: an aspirin to quiet a headache, some wine to be sociable, coffee to get going in the morning, a cigarette for the nerves.

结构分析:句子主干是We live in a society。此句句子虽长,但是结构并不复杂,可以从冒号开始分为两个部分。in which引导了一个定语从句。该从句的分句谓语动词是is而不是are,是因为在这个从句中主语是use,而不是substances。在冒号后的部分中,quiet是及物动词,是“镇静”的意思。

译文:在我们生活的社会里,物质(药品)被广泛地运用于社交和医疗,比如说服用阿司匹林来缓解头疼,喝酒来应酬,早晨喝咖啡来提神,吸烟来镇定情绪等。

9、Dependence is marked first by an increased tolerance, with more and more of the substance required to produce the desired effect, and then by the appearance of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued.

结构分析:句子主干是Dependence is marked first by…, with…, and then by…。with引导的是伴随结构作状语,修饰的是整个第一分句描述的状态。and引导的分句省略了谓语动词marked ,所以该分句并不隶属于第一分句,而是与之并列的结构,when引导的是第二个分句的时间状语从句。

译文:依赖最初表现为忍耐力增强,用量越来越大才能达到预期效果,一旦停用就会产生不舒服的症状。

10、But he talked as well about the “balanced struggle” between creative freedom and social responsibility, and he announced that the company would launch a drive to develop standards for distribution and labeling of potentially objectionable music.

结构分析:句子主干是But he talked as well about …, and he announced that…由and连接的两个并列成分构成。第二个分句中有一个that引导的宾语从句。

译文:但他也谈到了创作自由与社会责任之间要“努力保持均衡”这一问题。他宣布公司将发起一次活动,以制定有关发行和标识可能招致大众反对的音乐的各种标准。

11、Average inflation in the big seven industrial economies fell to a mere 2.3% last year, close to its lowest level in 30 years, before rising slightly to 2.5% this July.

结构分析:句子主干是Average inflation fell。close to相当于省略了which was的非限制性定语从句。Before后面的成分是对全句的补充说明,是状语成分。状语成分可以置句首,也可以置句末,并无规定。之所以用rising,是因为before在这里是介词。

译文:去年,七大工业国家的通货膨胀率下降到了2.3%,接近30年来最低水平,今年7月才小幅上涨到2.5%,比许多国家70年代和80年代两位数低了很多。

12、Economists hxdye been particularly surprised by fxdyorable inflation figures in Britain and the United States, since conventional measures suggest that both economies, and especially America’s, hxdye little productive slack.

结构分析:句子主干是Economists hxdye been…surprised。主句用现在完成时hxdye been…。Since引导的是表原因的状语从句。

译文:特别让经济学家感到诧异的是,英美两国的通货膨胀带来的是良性的结果。因为传统的分析方法表明,两国尤其是美国的经济生产,几乎没有闲置的生产资源。

13、Actually it isn’t, because it assumes that there is an agreed account of human rights, which is something the world does not hxdye.

结构分析:句子主干是Actually it isn’t…。主句很简单,而because引导的原因状语从句中,又有一个that引导的宾语从句。这个从句中,主语an agreed account of human rights由一个which引导的非限制性定语从句修饰,而这个非限制性定语从句中又有一个限制性定语从句the world does not hxdye来修饰something。

译文:事实并非如此,因为这种问法是以人们对人的权利有共同认识为基础的,而这种共同认识并不存在。

14、Some philosophers argue that rights exist only within a social contract, as part of an exchange of duties and entitlements.

结构分析:句子主干是Some philosophers argue that…。that引导的宾语从句中,as part of an exchange of duties and entitlements充当了补语的角色。

译文:有些哲学家主张说,权利只存在于社会契约中,是责任与利益相交换的一部分。

15、Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevant respect, extremists of this kind think that animals lie outside the area of moral choice.

结构分析:句子主干是Arguing from the view that humans are…, extremists of this…逗号前面是一个现在分词短语,做状语,里面又有一个that从句做the view的同位语,逗号后面的that从句是一个宾语从句。

译文:这类人持极端看法,认为人与动物在各相关方面都不相同,对待动物无须考虑道德问题。

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